Titling a Reconstructed, Specially Constructed, or Replica Vehicle
Every person who owns a reconstructed vehicle, specially constructed vehicle, or replica vehicle must
obtain a certificate of title and registration for the vehicle before it is operated on any highway. All liens held
against the vehicle must be shown on the Virginia title.
- Reconstructed Vehicle
- Any vehicle that has been materially altered from its original construction by the removal, addition,
or substitution of new or used essential parts. (VA Code § 46.2-100)
- Specially Constructed Vehicle
- Any vehicle that was not originally constructed under a distinctive name, make, model, or type by a generally
recognized manufacturer of vehicles and which would not be otherwise defined as a reconstructed vehicle.
(VA Code § 46.2-100) For example, a vehicle constructed using a
Mercury frame and a Chevrolet body.
- Replica Vehicle
- Any vehicle not fully constructed by a licensed manufacturer, but
either constructed or assembled from components. Such components may be from a single vehicle,
multiple vehicles, a kit, parts, or fabricated components. The kit may be made up of major components,
a full body, or a full chassis, or a combination of these parts. The vehicle must resemble a vehicle of
distinctive name, line-make, model, or type as produced by a licensed manufacturer or manufacturer no
longer in business and is not a reconstructed or specially constructed vehicle.
(VA Code § 46.2-100)
- Major Components
- Any one of the following subassemblies of a motor vehicle: (i) front clip assembly, consisting of the fenders, grille, hood, bumper, and related parts;
(ii) engine; (iii) transmission; (iv) rear clip assembly, consisting of the quarter panels, floor panels,
trunk lid, bumper, and related parts; (v) frame; (vi) air bags; and (vii) any door that displays a vehicle
identification number. (VA Code § 46.2-1600)
How to Apply
Follow these steps when applying for a title for a reconstructed, specially constructed or replica vehicle.
Step 1: Submit the following completed forms:
- Application for Assigned Vehicle Identification Number (VSA 22), if
NOTE: Vehicles such as reconstructed or specially constructed motor vehicles may have
existing vehicle identification numbers (VINs) that are no longer appropriate because the vehicle has been
fundamentally altered to be an entirely different vehicle for titling purposes. In order to title these types of
vehicles, DMV will assign vehicle identification numbers.
If the vehicle is a replica built on a manufactured chassis or a chassis from another vehicle, a VIN usually
will not have to be assigned by DMV because the Manufacturer's Certificate (or Statement) of Origin
(MCO or MSO) will provide an acceptable VIN for the vehicle. A replica vehicle built on the chassis from
another vehicle may use the VIN from the existing chassis, as long as the new vehicle is a replica of the
vehicle from which the chassis came. However, DMV must assign a VIN to any replica vehicle that
otherwise does not have one, or if the replica does not appear to be the vehicle from which
the chassis came.
Any vehicle owner seeking an assignment of VIN from DMV must establish ownership of the vehicle by
submitting all titles or other ownership documents for any parts acquired for use in constructing the vehicle.
Each type of vehicle has certain components that must be accounted for with a bill of sale, title, certificate of
origin and/or a notarized affidavit. These documents must show any identification numbers, sale price, and
be properly assigned to the applicant.
Any vehicle, for which an application for a VIN has been made, will be subject to inspection by DMV
("VIN inspection"). In addition, all reconstructed, specially constructed, and replica vehicles must be
inspected by DMV's Law Enforcement Services prior to titling, even if the vehicle has an existing, useable VIN.
DMV charges a fee for the inspection, verification, or identification of the serial number or VIN of any
- Application for Certificate of Title and Registration (VSA 17A)
- Vehicle Services Payment Authorization (VSA 153), if applicable
Step 2: Submit proof of address
Refer to Acceptable Documents for Titling a Vehicle in Virginia (DMV 177) for a list of proof of address documents.
Step 3: Submit properly assigned ownership documents or bills of sale for:
- Engine and Drive Train (component parts consisting of engine, transmission and rear axle)
- MCO or MSO for cab/glider kit, if applicable (A glider kit is a new cab and front axle used to replace a
wrecked or retired cab and front axle. Motor vehicle sales and use tax is not required; however, you must
provide proof that you paid retail tax.)
- For replica vehicle, MCO or MSO of the chassis, if specially manufactured or the title for the chassis if
it came from another vehicle
NOTE: For motorcycles, submit properly assigned ownership documents or bills of
sale for the following:
- Transmission, if applicable
- Front-end assembly
Step 4: Submit the following documents:
- A detailed notarized statement stating how the vehicle was constructed
- Multiple pictures of the completed vehicle (You must show at least the front and side of the vehicle.)
Step 5: Submit the following fees:
- $5 VIN Plate Fee, if applicable
- $125 Inspection Fee
- $15 Title Fee
- Motor Vehicle Sales and Use Tax
NOTE: If the vehicle weighs 26,001 pounds or more, you are exempt from
paying sales and use tax. If you paid retail sales tax on any parts at the time of purchase and you
are providing proof of payment, no motor vehicle sales and use tax is required.
- Registration Fee, if applicable
NOTE: In order to operate your vehicle on Virginia highways, the vehicle must
pass a state motor vehicle safety inspection. You must pay the local vehicle registration fee to the
locality and display the local sticker or decal on the windshield, if applicable.
Step 6: Submit all documents and fees to:
NOTE: The estimated turnaround time for this process is 3 weeks, if you submit
all required documentation. You must completely assemble the vehicle prior to submitting your original
paperwork to DMV for processing. A DMV Investigator will contact you to schedule an appointment to
inspect the vehicle and install the VIN plate, if applicable.
Please note the following:
- Replica vehicles may not be driven more than 5,000 miles each year
(VA Code § 46.2-602.1).
- A state inspection must be performed on the vehicle and the state inspection sticker must be
displayed on the windshield, if applicable.
- The locality sticker/decal must be displayed on the windshield, if applicable.
NOTE: Some localities do not require the
display of a sticker/decal on a vehicle; however, payment of the local registration fee is still required. Check
with the appropriate locality for requirements.